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Senin, 05 April 2010

Chlorophyll is vital for photosynthesis, which allows plants to obtain energy from light.

Chlorophyll molecules are specifically arranged in and around photosystems which are embedded in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts. In these complexes, chlorophyll serves two primary functions. The function of the vast majority of chlorophyll (up to several hundred molecules per photosystem) is to absorb light and transfer that light energy by resonance energy transfer to a specific chlorophyll pair in the reaction center of the photosystems. Because of chlorophyll’s selectivity regarding the wavelength of light it absorbs, areas of a leaf containing the molecule will appear green.

The two currently accepted photosystem units are Photosystem II and Photosystem I, which have their own distinct reaction center chlorophylls, named P680 and P700, respectively.[2] These pigments are named after the wavelength (in nanometers) of their red-peak absorption maximum. The identity, function and spectral properties of the types of chlorophyll in each photosystem are distinct and determined by each other and the protein structure surrounding them. Once extracted from the protein into a solvent (such as acetone or methanol),[3][4][5] these chlorophyll pigments can be separated in a simple paper chromatography experiment, and, based on the number of polar groups between chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, will chemically separate out on the paper.

The function of the reaction center chlorophyll is to use the energy absorbed by and transferred to it from the other chlorophyll pigments in the photosystems to undergo a charge separation, a specific redox reaction in which the chlorophyll donates an electron into a series of molecular intermediates called an electron transport chain. The charged reaction center chlorophyll (P680+) is then reduced back to its ground state by accepting an electron. In Photosystem II, the electron which reduces P680+ ultimately comes from the oxidation of water into O2 and H+ through several intermediates. This reaction is how photosynthetic organisms like plants produce O2 gas, and is the source for practically all the O2 in Earth's atmosphere. Photosystem I typically works in series with Photosystem II, thus the P700+ of Photosystem I is usually reduced, via many intermediates in the thylakoid membrane, by electrons ultimately from Photosystem II. Electron transfer reactions in the thylakoid membranes are complex, however, and the source of electrons used to reduce P700+ can vary.

The electron flow produced by the reaction center chlorophyll pigments is used to shuttle H+ ions across the thylakoid membrane, setting up a chemiosmotic potential mainly used to produce ATP chemical energy, and those electrons ultimately reduce NADP+ to NADPH a universal reductant used to reduce CO2 into sugars as well as for other biosynthetic reductions.

Reaction center chlorophyll-protein complexes are capable of directly absorbing light and performing charge separation events without other chlorophyll pigments, but the absorption cross section (the likelihood of absorbing a photon under a given light intensity) is small. Thus, the remaining chlorophylls in the photosystem and antenna pigment protein complexes associated with the photosystems all cooperatively absorb and funnel light energy to the reaction center. Besides chlorophyll a, there are other pigments, called accessory pigments, which occur in these pigment-protein antenna complexes.

Chlorophyll

admts  |  at  23.46  | No comments

Chlorophyll is vital for photosynthesis, which allows plants to obtain energy from light.

Chlorophyll molecules are specifically arranged in and around photosystems which are embedded in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts. In these complexes, chlorophyll serves two primary functions. The function of the vast majority of chlorophyll (up to several hundred molecules per photosystem) is to absorb light and transfer that light energy by resonance energy transfer to a specific chlorophyll pair in the reaction center of the photosystems. Because of chlorophyll’s selectivity regarding the wavelength of light it absorbs, areas of a leaf containing the molecule will appear green.

The two currently accepted photosystem units are Photosystem II and Photosystem I, which have their own distinct reaction center chlorophylls, named P680 and P700, respectively.[2] These pigments are named after the wavelength (in nanometers) of their red-peak absorption maximum. The identity, function and spectral properties of the types of chlorophyll in each photosystem are distinct and determined by each other and the protein structure surrounding them. Once extracted from the protein into a solvent (such as acetone or methanol),[3][4][5] these chlorophyll pigments can be separated in a simple paper chromatography experiment, and, based on the number of polar groups between chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, will chemically separate out on the paper.

The function of the reaction center chlorophyll is to use the energy absorbed by and transferred to it from the other chlorophyll pigments in the photosystems to undergo a charge separation, a specific redox reaction in which the chlorophyll donates an electron into a series of molecular intermediates called an electron transport chain. The charged reaction center chlorophyll (P680+) is then reduced back to its ground state by accepting an electron. In Photosystem II, the electron which reduces P680+ ultimately comes from the oxidation of water into O2 and H+ through several intermediates. This reaction is how photosynthetic organisms like plants produce O2 gas, and is the source for practically all the O2 in Earth's atmosphere. Photosystem I typically works in series with Photosystem II, thus the P700+ of Photosystem I is usually reduced, via many intermediates in the thylakoid membrane, by electrons ultimately from Photosystem II. Electron transfer reactions in the thylakoid membranes are complex, however, and the source of electrons used to reduce P700+ can vary.

The electron flow produced by the reaction center chlorophyll pigments is used to shuttle H+ ions across the thylakoid membrane, setting up a chemiosmotic potential mainly used to produce ATP chemical energy, and those electrons ultimately reduce NADP+ to NADPH a universal reductant used to reduce CO2 into sugars as well as for other biosynthetic reductions.

Reaction center chlorophyll-protein complexes are capable of directly absorbing light and performing charge separation events without other chlorophyll pigments, but the absorption cross section (the likelihood of absorbing a photon under a given light intensity) is small. Thus, the remaining chlorophylls in the photosystem and antenna pigment protein complexes associated with the photosystems all cooperatively absorb and funnel light energy to the reaction center. Besides chlorophyll a, there are other pigments, called accessory pigments, which occur in these pigment-protein antenna complexes.
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Selasa, 16 Maret 2010

If your menstrual blood varies in color and consistency throughout your monthly period, it's very likely that it's perfectly normal. There are times, though, when changes in color, thickness, or clotting may indicate a menstrual blood problem.

You might feel embarrassed asking your doctor about menstrual blood problems. But it is important to talk with your doctor about any concerns you might have.
What's happening during a woman's period, and how long does a normal period last?

During your menstrual cycle, the lining of your uterus thickens to get ready for pregnancy. Then, during your period, your body sheds the uterus lining along with blood. The amount of blood and fluid lost is usually between 4 and 12 teaspoons each cycle.

The average menstrual cycle lasts 28 days. For some women, though, cycles can be as short as 21 days. For others, they can be as long as 35 days.

A normal period lasts between two and seven days. The average length of time for a period is three to five days.
Are clots and thicker menstrual blood unusual during a period?

Many women have clots in their menstrual blood from time to time. The clots may be bright red or dark in color. Often, these clots are shed on the heaviest days of bleeding. The presence of multiple clots in your flow may make your menstrual blood seem thick or denser than usual.

Your body typically releases anticoagulants to keep menstrual blood from clotting as it's being released. But when your period is heavy and blood is being rapidly expelled, there's not enough time for anticoagulants to work. That enables clots to form.

If you have excessive clotting or clots larger than a quarter, you should see a health care professional to rule out any conditions that might be causing an abnormal period.
Are darker colors and thicker flows normal in menstrual blood?

Sometimes you may notice that your menstrual blood becomes dark brown or almost black as you near the end of your period. This is a normal color change. It happens when the blood is older and not being expelled from the body quickly.

Temporary thick heavy flow isn't necessarily cause for concern. However, regular heavy periods justify a trip to the doctor to check your blood counts. Many women become accustomed to heavy periods, considering them to be normal. Over time, though, the excess monthly blood loss leads to anemia, potentially causing weakness or fatigue. If you ever feel something's not right with your period, see your health care provider.
What causes menstrual blood problems?

Changes in color and thickness of menstrual blood are often normal. But there are a number of problems that might cause abnormal clots to form in your menstrual blood or lead to the changes in color or thickness during your period. Remember, it's important to discuss any concerns you have with your doctor. Problems that can cause changes include:

* Miscarriage. Women who have miscarried may pass blood clots or gray clumps of tissue from the vagina. If there is a chance you are pregnant, be sure to check with your doctor immediately if you notice excessive bleeding or clotting.
* Fibroids. Uterine fibroids are also called fibromyomas. These are non-cancerous tumors that form in the womb. Fibroids do not always cause symptoms. But it is common for women with fibroids to notice greater than usual amounts of menstrual blood. If you have fibroids, you may have more clots in your period than you had in the past.
* Hormonal changes. Your body relies on a delicate balance of the hormones progesterone and estrogen. These hormones regulate the production and shedding of the uterine lining. When this balance is disturbed, it can lead to the development of an excessively thick uterine lining. This thickness can contribute to more bleeding than usual. It can also cause clots in the menstrual blood when the lining is shed.

Hormone changes may occur for many reasons, including:

* menopause
* recent dramatic weight change
* side effects from some medications, including steroids
* Large uterus. If your uterus has been stretched during pregnancy and does not return to its original size, it may be permanently enlarged. With an enlarged uterus, menstrual blood may have time to collect and clot before it's released from the body. This could also result in a dark color or thickening of your menstrual flow.
* Obstruction of menstrual blood. Anything that hinders or blocks the flow of menstrual blood from the uterus through the cervix and out of the vagina may lead to problems with clots, color, or thickness of menstrual blood. Benign polyps in the uterus may change the flow of blood during your period. The flow can also be slowed around the time of menopause when the cervical canal may become smaller as estrogen levels drop.
* Adenomyosis or endometriosis. These related conditions occur when the tissue that forms the uterine lining is found in the wrong place. In endometriosis, this tissue develops outside of the uterus. In adenomyosis it grows in the muscle that makes up the uterine walls. Both of these conditions can lead to abnormal periods and heavy flow. This can increase the likelihood of menstrual blood problems such as clotting or thickness.

How are menstrual bleeding problems diagnosed?

Depending on your symptoms, your doctor may order a variety of tests to determine the reason for menstrual blood problems. These may include:

* Vaginal ultrasound. This test uses sound waves to take a picture of the inside of your vagina and uterus.
* MRI. This non-invasive procedure can provide an image of growths, such as fibroids, that may be contributing to your menstrual bleeding problems.
* Blood work. Your doctor may order blood tests to determine whether your blood is clotting correctly. The tests will also help ensure that you are not suffering from anemia, an iron deficiency that can result from loss of blood.
* Biopsy. In this procedure, your doctor will remove a small tissue sample from the lining of your uterus for analysis.
* Dilatation and curettage. In this procedure, your cervix is dilated and a surgeon scrapes off the lining of the uterus and cervix. This can be used to help alleviate excessive bleeding or obtain tissue samples for analysis.

When should I see a doctor for menstrual bleeding problems?

Menstrual bleeding problems are rarely serious. Significant blood loss can occur over time, though, going unnoticed because it's so gradual. See your doctor if you experience any of the following:

* fatigue with normal activity
* lightheadedness
* pale, wan skin
* fingernail beds that are pale, not pink
* irregular periods, or frequent bleeding in between periods

Anemia can be diagnosed with a simple blood test. Iron pills result in improvement in most women.

(sumber :http://women.webmd.com/)

Menstrual Blood Problems: Clots, Color, and Thickness

admts  |  at  22.00  | No comments

If your menstrual blood varies in color and consistency throughout your monthly period, it's very likely that it's perfectly normal. There are times, though, when changes in color, thickness, or clotting may indicate a menstrual blood problem.

You might feel embarrassed asking your doctor about menstrual blood problems. But it is important to talk with your doctor about any concerns you might have.
What's happening during a woman's period, and how long does a normal period last?

During your menstrual cycle, the lining of your uterus thickens to get ready for pregnancy. Then, during your period, your body sheds the uterus lining along with blood. The amount of blood and fluid lost is usually between 4 and 12 teaspoons each cycle.

The average menstrual cycle lasts 28 days. For some women, though, cycles can be as short as 21 days. For others, they can be as long as 35 days.

A normal period lasts between two and seven days. The average length of time for a period is three to five days.
Are clots and thicker menstrual blood unusual during a period?

Many women have clots in their menstrual blood from time to time. The clots may be bright red or dark in color. Often, these clots are shed on the heaviest days of bleeding. The presence of multiple clots in your flow may make your menstrual blood seem thick or denser than usual.

Your body typically releases anticoagulants to keep menstrual blood from clotting as it's being released. But when your period is heavy and blood is being rapidly expelled, there's not enough time for anticoagulants to work. That enables clots to form.

If you have excessive clotting or clots larger than a quarter, you should see a health care professional to rule out any conditions that might be causing an abnormal period.
Are darker colors and thicker flows normal in menstrual blood?

Sometimes you may notice that your menstrual blood becomes dark brown or almost black as you near the end of your period. This is a normal color change. It happens when the blood is older and not being expelled from the body quickly.

Temporary thick heavy flow isn't necessarily cause for concern. However, regular heavy periods justify a trip to the doctor to check your blood counts. Many women become accustomed to heavy periods, considering them to be normal. Over time, though, the excess monthly blood loss leads to anemia, potentially causing weakness or fatigue. If you ever feel something's not right with your period, see your health care provider.
What causes menstrual blood problems?

Changes in color and thickness of menstrual blood are often normal. But there are a number of problems that might cause abnormal clots to form in your menstrual blood or lead to the changes in color or thickness during your period. Remember, it's important to discuss any concerns you have with your doctor. Problems that can cause changes include:

* Miscarriage. Women who have miscarried may pass blood clots or gray clumps of tissue from the vagina. If there is a chance you are pregnant, be sure to check with your doctor immediately if you notice excessive bleeding or clotting.
* Fibroids. Uterine fibroids are also called fibromyomas. These are non-cancerous tumors that form in the womb. Fibroids do not always cause symptoms. But it is common for women with fibroids to notice greater than usual amounts of menstrual blood. If you have fibroids, you may have more clots in your period than you had in the past.
* Hormonal changes. Your body relies on a delicate balance of the hormones progesterone and estrogen. These hormones regulate the production and shedding of the uterine lining. When this balance is disturbed, it can lead to the development of an excessively thick uterine lining. This thickness can contribute to more bleeding than usual. It can also cause clots in the menstrual blood when the lining is shed.

Hormone changes may occur for many reasons, including:

* menopause
* recent dramatic weight change
* side effects from some medications, including steroids
* Large uterus. If your uterus has been stretched during pregnancy and does not return to its original size, it may be permanently enlarged. With an enlarged uterus, menstrual blood may have time to collect and clot before it's released from the body. This could also result in a dark color or thickening of your menstrual flow.
* Obstruction of menstrual blood. Anything that hinders or blocks the flow of menstrual blood from the uterus through the cervix and out of the vagina may lead to problems with clots, color, or thickness of menstrual blood. Benign polyps in the uterus may change the flow of blood during your period. The flow can also be slowed around the time of menopause when the cervical canal may become smaller as estrogen levels drop.
* Adenomyosis or endometriosis. These related conditions occur when the tissue that forms the uterine lining is found in the wrong place. In endometriosis, this tissue develops outside of the uterus. In adenomyosis it grows in the muscle that makes up the uterine walls. Both of these conditions can lead to abnormal periods and heavy flow. This can increase the likelihood of menstrual blood problems such as clotting or thickness.

How are menstrual bleeding problems diagnosed?

Depending on your symptoms, your doctor may order a variety of tests to determine the reason for menstrual blood problems. These may include:

* Vaginal ultrasound. This test uses sound waves to take a picture of the inside of your vagina and uterus.
* MRI. This non-invasive procedure can provide an image of growths, such as fibroids, that may be contributing to your menstrual bleeding problems.
* Blood work. Your doctor may order blood tests to determine whether your blood is clotting correctly. The tests will also help ensure that you are not suffering from anemia, an iron deficiency that can result from loss of blood.
* Biopsy. In this procedure, your doctor will remove a small tissue sample from the lining of your uterus for analysis.
* Dilatation and curettage. In this procedure, your cervix is dilated and a surgeon scrapes off the lining of the uterus and cervix. This can be used to help alleviate excessive bleeding or obtain tissue samples for analysis.

When should I see a doctor for menstrual bleeding problems?

Menstrual bleeding problems are rarely serious. Significant blood loss can occur over time, though, going unnoticed because it's so gradual. See your doctor if you experience any of the following:

* fatigue with normal activity
* lightheadedness
* pale, wan skin
* fingernail beds that are pale, not pink
* irregular periods, or frequent bleeding in between periods

Anemia can be diagnosed with a simple blood test. Iron pills result in improvement in most women.

(sumber :http://women.webmd.com/)
Continue Reading→


Troubling physical and emotional symptoms that occur between the time of ovulation and the first days of the menstrual period are called premenstrual symptoms. Premenstrual symptoms that interfere with relationships or responsibilities are called premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

PMS has a wide variety of physical, emotional, and behavioral symptoms that vary greatly from woman to woman and from cycle to cycle. Symptoms may range from mild to severe. The most common physical symptoms of PMS are water retention, breast tenderness, and weight gain. Common emotional and behavioral symptoms include depression, irritability, and mood swings.

While there is no cure for PMS, many women can improve their symptoms by getting regular exercise, eating a healthy diet, limiting alcohol and caffeine intake, and reducing stress. Nonprescription pain relievers can help reduce some symptoms. Prescription medications may be necessary for women who have severe PMS that significantly interferes with their lives on a regular basis.

Premenstrual syndrome

admts  |  at  21.57  | No comments


Troubling physical and emotional symptoms that occur between the time of ovulation and the first days of the menstrual period are called premenstrual symptoms. Premenstrual symptoms that interfere with relationships or responsibilities are called premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

PMS has a wide variety of physical, emotional, and behavioral symptoms that vary greatly from woman to woman and from cycle to cycle. Symptoms may range from mild to severe. The most common physical symptoms of PMS are water retention, breast tenderness, and weight gain. Common emotional and behavioral symptoms include depression, irritability, and mood swings.

While there is no cure for PMS, many women can improve their symptoms by getting regular exercise, eating a healthy diet, limiting alcohol and caffeine intake, and reducing stress. Nonprescription pain relievers can help reduce some symptoms. Prescription medications may be necessary for women who have severe PMS that significantly interferes with their lives on a regular basis.

Continue Reading→

Keep a calendar and mark the day you start your menstrual period each month. If your cycle is regular, it can help you predict when you'll have your next period. It's also important to know the date of your last menstrual period (LMP) when you're pregnant and need to estimate your due date.

If you're trying to figure out whether you have a pattern of premenstrual symptoms, it may be helpful to keep a premenstrual daily symptom diary(What is a PDF document?).

You can improve your body's ability to handle menstrual changes by getting regular exercise, eating a healthy diet, limiting alcohol and caffeine intake, and reducing stress. Nonprescription pain relievers can also help reduce some symptoms.
Medicine for menstrual pain and bleeding

Try a nonprescription medicine to help relieve your pain and bleeding. Start taking the recommended dose of pain reliever when symptoms begin or 1 day before your menstrual period starts. If you are trying to become pregnant, talk to your doctor before using any medicine.

* Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen (for example, Advil), reduce menstrual cramps, pain, and bleeding by lowering the level of the hormone prostaglandin.3, 4
* If NSAIDs do not relieve the pain, try acetaminophen, such as Tylenol.
* Take the medicine for as long as the symptoms would normally last if you did not take the medicine.

Be sure to follow all labels and instructions. Do not take aspirin if you are younger than 20 because of the risk of Reye syndrome.
Additional ways to relieve menstrual cramps

* Apply heat to your abdomen with a heating pad or hot water bottle, or take a warm bath. Heat improves blood flow and may decrease pelvic pain.
* Lie down and elevate your legs by putting a pillow under your knees.
* Lie on your side and bring your knees up toward your chest. This will help relieve back pressure.
* Get regular exercise. This improves blood flow, produces pain-fighting endorphins, and may reduce pain.
* If you have vaginal pain with cramps, try using pads instead of tampons.

For more information on managing menstrual cramps, see:

Menstrual cycle: Dealing with cramps.

Managing menstrual bleeding

You can choose from a range of pad and tampon choices for managing menstrual bleeding. Follow all instructions included with the product of your choice.

* Tampons range from small to large, for light to heavy flow. You can place a tampon in the vagina by using a slender tube (that is packaged with the tampon) or by tucking it in with a finger. It's important to change a tampon every 4 to 6 hours. This helps prevent leakage as well as infection.
* Pads range from thin and light to thick and super absorbent. They protect your clothing, with or without using a tampon. Pads may be your best choice for use at night.

Whichever you use, be sure to change it regularly. Tampons are ideal for activities that pads aren't practical for, such as swimming. Tampons should be changed every 4 to 6 hours, so they aren't recommended for nighttime use. It may take some experimenting to find the right feminine care products for you.
(webMD)

Managing Menstrual Cycle Symptoms and Bleeding

admts  |  at  21.56  | No comments

Keep a calendar and mark the day you start your menstrual period each month. If your cycle is regular, it can help you predict when you'll have your next period. It's also important to know the date of your last menstrual period (LMP) when you're pregnant and need to estimate your due date.

If you're trying to figure out whether you have a pattern of premenstrual symptoms, it may be helpful to keep a premenstrual daily symptom diary(What is a PDF document?).

You can improve your body's ability to handle menstrual changes by getting regular exercise, eating a healthy diet, limiting alcohol and caffeine intake, and reducing stress. Nonprescription pain relievers can also help reduce some symptoms.
Medicine for menstrual pain and bleeding

Try a nonprescription medicine to help relieve your pain and bleeding. Start taking the recommended dose of pain reliever when symptoms begin or 1 day before your menstrual period starts. If you are trying to become pregnant, talk to your doctor before using any medicine.

* Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen (for example, Advil), reduce menstrual cramps, pain, and bleeding by lowering the level of the hormone prostaglandin.3, 4
* If NSAIDs do not relieve the pain, try acetaminophen, such as Tylenol.
* Take the medicine for as long as the symptoms would normally last if you did not take the medicine.

Be sure to follow all labels and instructions. Do not take aspirin if you are younger than 20 because of the risk of Reye syndrome.
Additional ways to relieve menstrual cramps

* Apply heat to your abdomen with a heating pad or hot water bottle, or take a warm bath. Heat improves blood flow and may decrease pelvic pain.
* Lie down and elevate your legs by putting a pillow under your knees.
* Lie on your side and bring your knees up toward your chest. This will help relieve back pressure.
* Get regular exercise. This improves blood flow, produces pain-fighting endorphins, and may reduce pain.
* If you have vaginal pain with cramps, try using pads instead of tampons.

For more information on managing menstrual cramps, see:

Menstrual cycle: Dealing with cramps.

Managing menstrual bleeding

You can choose from a range of pad and tampon choices for managing menstrual bleeding. Follow all instructions included with the product of your choice.

* Tampons range from small to large, for light to heavy flow. You can place a tampon in the vagina by using a slender tube (that is packaged with the tampon) or by tucking it in with a finger. It's important to change a tampon every 4 to 6 hours. This helps prevent leakage as well as infection.
* Pads range from thin and light to thick and super absorbent. They protect your clothing, with or without using a tampon. Pads may be your best choice for use at night.

Whichever you use, be sure to change it regularly. Tampons are ideal for activities that pads aren't practical for, such as swimming. Tampons should be changed every 4 to 6 hours, so they aren't recommended for nighttime use. It may take some experimenting to find the right feminine care products for you.
(webMD)
Continue Reading→

What is a menstrual cycle?

The menstrual cycle is the series of changes a woman's body goes through to prepare for a pregnancy. About once a month, the uterus grows a new lining (endometrium) to get ready for a fertilized egg . When there is no fertilized egg to start a pregnancy, the uterus sheds its lining. This is the monthly menstrual bleeding (also called menstrual period) that women have from their early teen years until menopause, around age 50.

The menstrual cycle is from Day 1 of bleeding to Day 1 of the next time of bleeding. Although the average cycle is 28 days, it is perfectly normal to have a cycle that is as short as 21 days or as long as 35 days.1 For a teen, a normal cycle can last up to 45 days.2

Girls usually start having menstrual periods between the ages of 11 and 14. Women usually start to have fewer periods between ages 39 and 51. Women in their 40s and teens may have cycles that are longer or change a lot. If you are a teen, your cycles should even out with time. If you are nearing menopause, your cycles will probably get longer and then will stop.

Talk to your doctor if you notice any big change in your cycle. It’s especially important to check with your doctor if you have three or more cycles that last longer than 7 days or are very heavy. Also call if you have bleeding between your periods or pelvic pain that is not from your period.
What controls the menstrual cycle?

Your hormones control your menstrual cycle. During each cycle, your brain's hypothalamus and pituitary gland send hormone signals back and forth with your ovaries. These signals get the ovaries and uterus ready for a pregnancy.

The hormones estrogen and progesterone play the biggest roles in how the uterus changes during each cycle.

* Estrogen builds up the lining of the uterus.
* Progesterone increases after an ovary releases an egg (ovulation) at the middle of the cycle. This helps the estrogen keep the lining thick and ready for a fertilized egg.
* A drop in progesterone (along with estrogen) causes the lining to break down. This is when your period starts.

A change in hormone levels can affect your cycle or fertility. For example, teens tend to have low or changing progesterone levels. This is also true for women close to menopause. That is why teens and women in their 40s may have heavy menstrual bleeding and cycles that change in length.

Other things can change your cycle. They include birth control pills, low body fat, losing a lot of weight, or being overweight. Stress or very hard exercise also can change your cycle. Pregnancy is the most common cause of a missed period.

What common symptoms are linked to the menstrual cycle?

Some women have no pain or other problems. But other women have symptoms before and during their period.

For about a week before a period, many women have some premenstrual symptoms. You may feel more tense or angry. You may gain water weight and feel bloated. Your breasts may feel tender. You may get acne. You also may have less energy than usual. A day or two before your period, you may start having pain (cramps) in your belly, back, or legs. These symptoms go away during the first days of a period.

When your ovary releases an egg in the middle of your cycle, you may have pain in your lower belly. You also might have red spotting for less than a day. Both are normal.
How can women take care of bleeding and symptoms?

You can use pads or tampons to manage bleeding. Whichever you use, be sure to change the pad or tampon at least every 4 to 6 hours during the day. Pads may be best at night.

Many women can improve their symptoms by getting regular exercise and eating a healthy diet. It also may help to limit alcohol and caffeine. Try to reduce stress.

A heating pad, hot water bottle, or warm bath also can help with cramps. You can take an over-the-counter medicine such as ibuprofen or naproxen before and during your period to reduce pain and bleeding.3, 4

(webMD)

Normal Menstrual Cycle - Topic Overview

admts  |  at  21.54  | No comments

What is a menstrual cycle?

The menstrual cycle is the series of changes a woman's body goes through to prepare for a pregnancy. About once a month, the uterus grows a new lining (endometrium) to get ready for a fertilized egg . When there is no fertilized egg to start a pregnancy, the uterus sheds its lining. This is the monthly menstrual bleeding (also called menstrual period) that women have from their early teen years until menopause, around age 50.

The menstrual cycle is from Day 1 of bleeding to Day 1 of the next time of bleeding. Although the average cycle is 28 days, it is perfectly normal to have a cycle that is as short as 21 days or as long as 35 days.1 For a teen, a normal cycle can last up to 45 days.2

Girls usually start having menstrual periods between the ages of 11 and 14. Women usually start to have fewer periods between ages 39 and 51. Women in their 40s and teens may have cycles that are longer or change a lot. If you are a teen, your cycles should even out with time. If you are nearing menopause, your cycles will probably get longer and then will stop.

Talk to your doctor if you notice any big change in your cycle. It’s especially important to check with your doctor if you have three or more cycles that last longer than 7 days or are very heavy. Also call if you have bleeding between your periods or pelvic pain that is not from your period.
What controls the menstrual cycle?

Your hormones control your menstrual cycle. During each cycle, your brain's hypothalamus and pituitary gland send hormone signals back and forth with your ovaries. These signals get the ovaries and uterus ready for a pregnancy.

The hormones estrogen and progesterone play the biggest roles in how the uterus changes during each cycle.

* Estrogen builds up the lining of the uterus.
* Progesterone increases after an ovary releases an egg (ovulation) at the middle of the cycle. This helps the estrogen keep the lining thick and ready for a fertilized egg.
* A drop in progesterone (along with estrogen) causes the lining to break down. This is when your period starts.

A change in hormone levels can affect your cycle or fertility. For example, teens tend to have low or changing progesterone levels. This is also true for women close to menopause. That is why teens and women in their 40s may have heavy menstrual bleeding and cycles that change in length.

Other things can change your cycle. They include birth control pills, low body fat, losing a lot of weight, or being overweight. Stress or very hard exercise also can change your cycle. Pregnancy is the most common cause of a missed period.

What common symptoms are linked to the menstrual cycle?

Some women have no pain or other problems. But other women have symptoms before and during their period.

For about a week before a period, many women have some premenstrual symptoms. You may feel more tense or angry. You may gain water weight and feel bloated. Your breasts may feel tender. You may get acne. You also may have less energy than usual. A day or two before your period, you may start having pain (cramps) in your belly, back, or legs. These symptoms go away during the first days of a period.

When your ovary releases an egg in the middle of your cycle, you may have pain in your lower belly. You also might have red spotting for less than a day. Both are normal.
How can women take care of bleeding and symptoms?

You can use pads or tampons to manage bleeding. Whichever you use, be sure to change the pad or tampon at least every 4 to 6 hours during the day. Pads may be best at night.

Many women can improve their symptoms by getting regular exercise and eating a healthy diet. It also may help to limit alcohol and caffeine. Try to reduce stress.

A heating pad, hot water bottle, or warm bath also can help with cramps. You can take an over-the-counter medicine such as ibuprofen or naproxen before and during your period to reduce pain and bleeding.3, 4

(webMD)
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Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a condition marked by severe depression symptoms, irritability, and tension before menstruation. These symptoms are more severe than those seen with premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
Causes

The causes of PMS and PMDD have not been identified.

Hormone changes that occur during a woman's menstrual cycle appear to play a role.

PMDD affects between 3 - 8% of women during the years they are having menstrual periods. The condition is usually worse in younger women.

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), major depression, anxiety, and similar disorders are seen in many women with this condition.

Other factors that may play a role include:

* Alcohol abuse
* Drinking large amounts of caffeine
* Having a mother with a history of the disorder
* Lack of exercise

Symptoms

The symptoms of PMDD are similar to those of PMS, but they are generally more severe and debilitating. Symptoms occur during the week just before menstrual bleeding and usually improve within a few days after the period starts.

Five or more of the following symptoms must be present:

* Disinterest in daily activities and relationships
* Fatigue or low energy
* Feeling of sadness or hopelessness, possible suicidal thoughts
* Feelings of tension or anxiety
* Feeling out of control
* Food cravings or binge eating
* Mood swings marked by periods of teariness
* Panic attack
* Persistent irritability or anger that affects other peopleTrouble concentrating
* Physical symptoms, such as bloating, breast tenderness, headaches, and joint or muscle pain
* Sleep disturbances

Exams and Tests

There are no physical examination findings or lab tests specific to the diagnosis of PMDD. A complete history, physical examination (including a pelvic exam), and psychiatric evaluation should be done to rule out other potential conditions.

Keeping a calendar or diary of symptoms can help women identify the most troublesome symptoms and the times they are likely to occur. This information may help the health care provider diagnose PMDD and determine the appropriate treatment.
Treatment

Women with PMDD may be helped by the following:

* A balanced diet (with increased whole grains, vegetables, fruit, and decreased or no salt, sugar, alcohol, and caffeine)
* Adequate rest
* Regular exercise 3-5 times per week

In addition, it is important to keep a diary or calendar to record the type, severity, and duration of symptoms.

Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are antidepressant drugs that can treat PMDD. SSRIs include fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem), sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil), fluvoxamine (Luvox), citalopram (Celexa), and escitalopram (Lexapro).

Nutritional supplements -- such as vitamin B6, calcium, and magnesium -- may be recommended. Pain relievers such as aspirin or ibuprofen may be prescribed for headache, backache, menstrual cramping and breast tenderness. Diuretics may be useful for women who have significant weight gain due to fluid retention.
Outlook (Prognosis)

After proper diagnosis and treatment, most women with PMDD find that their symptoms go away or drop to tolerable levels.
Possible Complications

PMDD symptoms may become severe enough that they interfere with a woman's daily life. Women with depression may have worse symptoms during the second half of their cycle and may require medication adjustments.

As many as 10% of women who report PMS symptoms, particularly those with PMDD, have had suicidal thoughts. The incidence of suicide in women with depression is significantly higher during the latter half of the menstrual cycle.

PMDD may be associated with eating disorders and smoking.
When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call 911 or a local crisis line immediately if you are having suicidal thoughts.

Call for an appointment with your health care provider if:

* Symptoms do not improve with self-treatment
* Symptoms interfere with your daily life

Alternative Names

PMDD
References

Braverman PK. Premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2007 Feb;20(1):3-12.

Lentz GM. Primary and secondary dysmenorrhea, premenstrual syndrome, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder: etiology, diagnosis, management. In: Katz VL, Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2007:chap 36.

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder

admts  |  at  21.52  | No comments


Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a condition marked by severe depression symptoms, irritability, and tension before menstruation. These symptoms are more severe than those seen with premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
Causes

The causes of PMS and PMDD have not been identified.

Hormone changes that occur during a woman's menstrual cycle appear to play a role.

PMDD affects between 3 - 8% of women during the years they are having menstrual periods. The condition is usually worse in younger women.

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), major depression, anxiety, and similar disorders are seen in many women with this condition.

Other factors that may play a role include:

* Alcohol abuse
* Drinking large amounts of caffeine
* Having a mother with a history of the disorder
* Lack of exercise

Symptoms

The symptoms of PMDD are similar to those of PMS, but they are generally more severe and debilitating. Symptoms occur during the week just before menstrual bleeding and usually improve within a few days after the period starts.

Five or more of the following symptoms must be present:

* Disinterest in daily activities and relationships
* Fatigue or low energy
* Feeling of sadness or hopelessness, possible suicidal thoughts
* Feelings of tension or anxiety
* Feeling out of control
* Food cravings or binge eating
* Mood swings marked by periods of teariness
* Panic attack
* Persistent irritability or anger that affects other peopleTrouble concentrating
* Physical symptoms, such as bloating, breast tenderness, headaches, and joint or muscle pain
* Sleep disturbances

Exams and Tests

There are no physical examination findings or lab tests specific to the diagnosis of PMDD. A complete history, physical examination (including a pelvic exam), and psychiatric evaluation should be done to rule out other potential conditions.

Keeping a calendar or diary of symptoms can help women identify the most troublesome symptoms and the times they are likely to occur. This information may help the health care provider diagnose PMDD and determine the appropriate treatment.
Treatment

Women with PMDD may be helped by the following:

* A balanced diet (with increased whole grains, vegetables, fruit, and decreased or no salt, sugar, alcohol, and caffeine)
* Adequate rest
* Regular exercise 3-5 times per week

In addition, it is important to keep a diary or calendar to record the type, severity, and duration of symptoms.

Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are antidepressant drugs that can treat PMDD. SSRIs include fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem), sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil), fluvoxamine (Luvox), citalopram (Celexa), and escitalopram (Lexapro).

Nutritional supplements -- such as vitamin B6, calcium, and magnesium -- may be recommended. Pain relievers such as aspirin or ibuprofen may be prescribed for headache, backache, menstrual cramping and breast tenderness. Diuretics may be useful for women who have significant weight gain due to fluid retention.
Outlook (Prognosis)

After proper diagnosis and treatment, most women with PMDD find that their symptoms go away or drop to tolerable levels.
Possible Complications

PMDD symptoms may become severe enough that they interfere with a woman's daily life. Women with depression may have worse symptoms during the second half of their cycle and may require medication adjustments.

As many as 10% of women who report PMS symptoms, particularly those with PMDD, have had suicidal thoughts. The incidence of suicide in women with depression is significantly higher during the latter half of the menstrual cycle.

PMDD may be associated with eating disorders and smoking.
When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call 911 or a local crisis line immediately if you are having suicidal thoughts.

Call for an appointment with your health care provider if:

* Symptoms do not improve with self-treatment
* Symptoms interfere with your daily life

Alternative Names

PMDD
References

Braverman PK. Premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2007 Feb;20(1):3-12.

Lentz GM. Primary and secondary dysmenorrhea, premenstrual syndrome, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder: etiology, diagnosis, management. In: Katz VL, Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2007:chap 36.
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Also called: PMS

Premenstrual syndrome, or PMS, is a group of symptoms that start one to two weeks before your period. Most women have at least some symptoms of PMS, and the symptoms go away after their periods start. For some women, the symptoms are severe enough to interfere with their lives. They have a type of PMS called premenstrual dysphoric disorder, or PMDD.

Common PMS symptoms include

* Breast swelling and tenderness
* Acne
* Bloating and weight gain
* Pain - headache or joint pain
* Food cravings
* Irritability, mood swings, crying spells, depression

No one knows what causes PMS, but hormonal changes trigger the symptoms. No single PMS treatment works for everyone. Over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen, aspirin or naproxen may help ease cramps, headaches, backaches and breast tenderness. Exercising, getting enough sleep, and avoiding salt, caffeine, and alcohol can also help.

Premenstrual Syndrome

admts  |  at  21.50  | No comments

Also called: PMS

Premenstrual syndrome, or PMS, is a group of symptoms that start one to two weeks before your period. Most women have at least some symptoms of PMS, and the symptoms go away after their periods start. For some women, the symptoms are severe enough to interfere with their lives. They have a type of PMS called premenstrual dysphoric disorder, or PMDD.

Common PMS symptoms include

* Breast swelling and tenderness
* Acne
* Bloating and weight gain
* Pain - headache or joint pain
* Food cravings
* Irritability, mood swings, crying spells, depression

No one knows what causes PMS, but hormonal changes trigger the symptoms. No single PMS treatment works for everyone. Over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen, aspirin or naproxen may help ease cramps, headaches, backaches and breast tenderness. Exercising, getting enough sleep, and avoiding salt, caffeine, and alcohol can also help.
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